85. download 1 file . the Kora and Allahabad areas42. In the year 1832 a similar law was passed giving protection to, Christian converts in inheriting property, but this law was confined only to the, Bengal presidency area75, notably in the case of inheriting property. In this case he actually threatened, to resign. Metcalf says Stokes undermines the assumption that 1857 was a response to general causes emanating from entire classes of people. After 1845-46 (First Sikh War) and 1848-49 (Second Sikh War), the EEIC found that they could recruit good soldier material from Punjab and, trans Indus about whose fighting qualities in case of Sikhs the EEIC was. What were the Causes of the Great Revolt of 1857? He had decided to stay in India and, his descendants never thought like an Englishman of 19th century that one day, they would go back and live in a palace or cottage in Central Asia. The Bengal Sepoys who belonged to Oudh were a privileged class in, Oudh since they were EEIC employees. Page 238- A History of the British Army-Volume-XIII-. As we have seen, the rapacious policies followed by . according to Shia Tradition when at Ghadir UL Khumm a depression located 91. x Pages-234 to 238-J.W Fortescue-Vol-XIII-Op Cit. Soon the Indian civilians joined the mutineers and killed about 50 Europeans. This Revolt was initiated by the sepoys of the company, so it has been commonly termed as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’. 1857 revolt is one of the most important topic for upsc. point with regard to the 1857 challenge, however, was that both the military and civilian revolts merged and this made it really formidable. 1975.As a matter of comparison it may be noted that the East India Company in, all its three armies had a total of 232,224 Natives out of which 188,286 were in. Topic wise Multiple Choice Questions and Answers from Revolt of 1857 Causes and After Effects - Modern India Part 1 Number of Questions : 10 Time : 8 minutes Result … All things said and, We are discussing Oudh in considerably greater detail because it was in this, -Daula as Nawab of Oudh in September 1797. The British did not, understand why 2nd Light Cavalry had behaved like that. region that the rebellion of 1857 came closest to what we call a 'Peoples War'. But till 1845 the EEIC did not have, any other option. Bengal Army native soldiers in the invincibility of EEIC and the Britishers. Pin. The EEIC was above all a commercial organization and, thoughtless, unplanned impulsive expansion figured nowhere in the principles, which guided its foreign policy in India. Even the Board of Directors of the EEIC viewed, this treaty as unjust and unfair and declared it null and void. by Muter.. This enraged a considerable part of the populace. The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. Aurangzeb preferred to, ennoble Mahratta Hindus who formed 16.7% of his nobles in the period (1679-, 1707) than lets say 'Punjabi Muslims' who were not even 2% .Thus Hin, Rajputs and Hindu Mahrattas were the bulk of Aurangzeb's nobility and their. In this lecture, We will discuss about "Revolt of 1857 - Cause & effects | Modern History | JKSSB , SSC, JKPSC, | General Awareness ! Learn more about the impact of 1857 revolt. The cartridges for Enfield Rifle to be. 1857) and the effects it produced . Oudh followed the lead given by the Meerut Troopers only after two months! conquered and annexed a part of India and made it a province of their empire. Later on after 1857, the British by and large accepted it as one of the principal causes of the, rebellion of 1857. Page-73 & 74 - Lieut F.G Cardew-Op Cit. In this case, Sir Charles, and subsequent resignation was a decisive event. The most important cause of popular discontent was the British policy of economically exploiting India. Land deeds and titles, of ownership were subjected to scrutiny and zealous young civil servants of, the EEIC in a bid to emancipate the peasants annoyed the Talukdars (Jagirdars, or big landlords). London-1862-Reprinted by-Low Price Publications-New Delhi-1990.It must be, remembered that Pakistani government and business men except Vanguard of, Lahore are doing no service to the cause of education or book reading in Pakistan, where books are so expensive that the common man cannot think of buying. Some call it a sepoy mutiny since the initial thrust of the revolt in the form of the cartridge episode was given by the soldiers. It is, important to note that the vast majority of Oudh's Talukdars were Hindu, Rajputs.Wazir Ali unlike most of Indian rulers after 1757 was surprisingly a true, 1797 in September, 1797. Edited by H.H Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-1987. Mutinies started right from 1757 but these were over. Subsequently when they assessed that the Mughal, Empire had became weak, they usurped power and became for all purposes, independent rulers. Dalhousie was a utilitarian and, progressive man63. The annexation of, Oudh is generally agreed to be one of the principle causes of the mutiny. The reason for it does not lie in the docility or weakness of the, Indo-Pak people but in the peculiar geographical position of India by virtue of, being bounded in the north by a vast inhospitable and unproductive region, which starts from beyond the Indus valley and stretches far north into the, steppes of central and eastern Asia. In order to remove this anomaly Lord Canning in 1856 changed the rules, of service in 1856 which made it compulsory for all regiments of Bengal Army, to serve overseas or in any part of the world. 60. So in advancing loans, also personal interest was the guiding motivation, as far as the Oudh Kings, (since 1818-19) were concerned. Retrying.. Lord Dalhousie, one of the Governor Generals in India wanted for, example to include Indians in the higher government of India but his wish was, overruled by the court of Directors of the English East India Company. Had he taken a resolute stand, and resisted the EEIC's unjust or unfair demands we could have said that he, was a hero. The 1857 Revolt: the Major Causes-Economic Causes-The colonial policies of the East India Company destroyed the traditional economic fabric of the Indian society. Initially the EEIC demanded cession of, more territory in return for placing Saadat Ali as Nawab. Pages-584 & 585-Cambridge History-British India-Op Cit. 5 the East India Company were impoverishing and ruining the peasantry. The episode of greased cartridges, however, was a big enough issue to start the rebellion on its own. All invaders after the Mughals, who came from the north or west were plunderers and only plunderers. . or 9th October 1819.This date was selected because it signified the day Ranjit Singh's (the Sikh hero) most trusted advisors were the Muslim Fakir, brothers of Lahore35. one of the earlier invaders of India. The Mahrattas were also against it and it was a practice mostly, found in High Caste Hindus or Rajput landlords. Economic cause: The Great Revolt of 1857 was also an outburst of grievances due to the economic exploitation of the company. However if we examine, records pertaining to opinions of EEIC officials before 1857 we find ample, evidence which proves that many Britishers whose opinion mattered and who, held the highest civil and military positions were clear that a rebellion was a, likely possibility in northern India. There was a problem previewing Indian History Freedom Struggle (1857-1947) pro.pdf. Wazir Ali resisted this attempt and in this connection visited the British, Resident a certain Mr. Cherry on 14th January 1799. EEIC lackey Saadat Ali Khan who was half brother of Wazir Ali's father and had, been fed on crumbs thrown by the EEIC for some 20 years in form of a pension, also played an instrumental role in this affair. little economic benefit and was transferred to Oudh around 1820s in lieu of part, of the forced loans taken from Oudh!Later the area was returned to Nepal for, services against the Sepoy Rebels during the final capture of Lucknow in March. But there is one thing we, know with certainty, that once the EEIC discovered that Wazir Ali was anti-, EEIC and wanted to strengthen his army they immediately started digging, facts to prove that Wazir Ali was a bastard, since the late Asif-, impotent! The Great Revolt of 1857' - starbuck Download Now An . Thus we see that conversion to Christianity of the African population, in South Africa did not end racism, nor did the same happen in USA right till, 1960s and even today. From the strict pragmatic and expediency, standpoint the EEIC was squeezing a docile vassal who they had militarily, defeated and who was under their political bondage. "Causes and Effects of . Centre for study of Intelligence Operations, Comparing cactus ( Opuntia spp. ) It became clearer in 1797, made the EEIC designs easier by gross mismanagement and debauchery. started a rebellion. In the case of Bahawalpur state he refused to interfere80. Here comes in the contradiction, men of vision like Sir, Syed even in 1840s knew that the English East India Company was there in, India to stay, but the man with average perception and these constitute the, vast majority in all historical situations, always naively thought that Oudh still, was a great power and the EEIC will not swallow what remained of Oudh after, 1801. subservience to the Mughal Emperor at Delhi55. There was none and those who had any potential were deposed, by the EEIC like Wazir Ali who was deposed from Nawab's title in 1798. It is true that the British were masters in making other races fight their wars, through a subtle system based on regimental pride, motivation, resolute, leadership espirit de corps etc. Oudh could no longer have any contact with any, other foreign country and was barred from allowing any European to either. (4) The Organizational Factor. Revolt of 1857 is known as the biggest revolt by Indians against the foreigners, forcing them to leave our motherland India. Lucknow, the capital of Oudh, continued to expand and became the most prosperous city, of India. Page-58-The Causes of the Indian Revolt-Syed Ahmad Khan Bahadur-First Published-1873-Reprinted by The Book House-8. (3) In Afghanistan due to cold climate the Hindus could not carry out the, rituals of bathing etc. Thus British government passed Government of India Act 1858 on August 2, 1858, according to which the power that the company enjoyed was snatched and a direct rule was established. Top 4 Causes of the Revolt of 1857 In . There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the revolt. During, the discussions while drafting the India Act of 1853 in the British Parliament a. proposal was made to have Indian members in the viceroy's legislative council. The policy of annexation on part of the English East India, Company was nothing but a logical outcome of superior military strength. In 1837, the Governor General Lord Auckland forced on Oudh a treaty by, which it asserted its right to take over what remained of Oudh if the Company, felt that the country was being mismanaged. .H.Fisher-Manohar Publications-New Delhi-, 42. The way to download is . The civil servants, the governors, all ranks and, appointments of any consequence were open to only the white man. But since their conduct was discriminatory and biased 'Christianity' also, became an issue. However from the political military or economic point of, view it strengthened the EEIC's position in northern India. Pages-295 & 296- The Punjab Chiefs-Volume I Sir Lepel H. Griffin-Revised and, Corrected by W.L Conran and H.D Craik-Civil and Military Gazette Press-Lahore-. AM The Great Revolt of 1857 After-effects of this . Revolt of 1857 is considered as a watershed movement in history. Historians have described the nature of the rebellion of 1857 variously. 91. that Pakistan had won the war of 1965 was false. That is why it is also called sepoy Mutiny. 36. 'Nadir was, not content to remain a mere brigand' in words of Percy Sykes.Leaders of third, world countries are much bigger brigands in terms of white collar fraud and, the finest modern historians of Mughal or post Mughal India are mostly from India, ;both Muslim as well as non Muslim,while history as a study has been given the, treatment reserved for a bastard child!This has been largely because history was, subjected to much distortion, thanks to influence of military usurpers who, destroyed not only democracy but also the intellectual depth as well as. not the total rallying points of the great revolt. Pages-684 & 685- A Dictionary of Modern Indian History-Parshotam Mehra-. The main goal of the above project is to provide a means of exchanging alum coagulation which is a chemical process ( due to its relation with alzeihmer disease ) with natural coagulants (in our c. To study and evaluate the important constants related to the oxygen sag curve of a river or Streeter Phelps equation. Major General Syed Shahid Hamid. The Indian Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 is also known as the Great Revolt, Indian Rebellion, the Great Uprising and the Great Rebellion of 1857. Sir Syed writing in the post-1857 era declared 'Exclusion' as, criticized in India and Pakistan was a matter of fact a great advocate of, inclusion of Indians in the higher ranks by virtue of allowing them to compete, in the open competitive examinations. The second was going across the Indus westwards which again in, their opinion polluted the purity of their caste. done Oudh remained an independent and comparatively peaceful region at a, time when , most of other parts of India including Delhi, Punjab and Central. independent judgement of Pakistani intellectuals. EEIC had guaranteed in this treaty that it would protect Oudh in perpetuity. Man's basic needs are food, water and air, but once these are fulfilled, he strives for higher needs and ideals like freedom and independence. It is in this regard that the British argument that 1857 was just, a soldier's mutiny is baseless. ase study cactus ) .As alum is more efficient than cactus the future goal is to reduce the alum dose by mixing alum (main coagulant )and cactus (secondary coagulant ). The Greeks who came with, Alexander could not do so and so gradually were assimilated and absorbed in, the Indian society. This, group was a better lot as compared to the Nawab. The, price of this succession was forced loans to the EEIC by Oudh on extremely, low interest rates. But then historians are, prisoners of time and the society they live in at least in the vast majority of, cases. The most intriguing of these incidents, unnoticed by, large majority of historians was the refusal of the 4th Bengal Cavalry on 2nd, November 1840 during the First Afghan War, to charge a party of Afghan, horsemen led by Dost Mohammad Khan at Perwan, north of Kabul.The British, historian John Fortescue had no answer for the reason why the 2nd Bengal, Light Cavalry fell back and fled from the battle field. Changes in the policies of the British after the suppression of the rebellion of 1857: (i) . Griffin-Revised, and Corrected by W.L Conran and H.D Craik-Civil and Military Gazette Press-. 74. cause of the mutinies in the Bengal Army from March 185793. agreement was to be reduced to less than one tenth of its previous size. Page-168 & 169-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit. Fortescue thus said about, this incident that; 'And then followed one of those incidents which after, endless explanation remain always mysterious. Another factor which was commonly known in Oudh of that time pertained to, loans which the EEIC took from the Nawab of Oudh after 1801. notes 5th sem cse pdf download revolt of 1857 causes and effects pdf . To explain the causes of the failure of the Revolt of 1857. This War is regarded as the most remarkable one which took place after the British came to India and began to establish their rule. Charles Napier disbanded one and restored the allowances for the second. The, British victory at Plassey had made the English East India Company de facto, master of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. by H.H Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-, area annexed in 1775- North India between Empires-Oudh,the Mughals and the. Proudly created with. It was this rumour which was the immediate and direct. given detailed instructions to Outram regarding disarming the populace of, Oudh who at the time of annexation were well armed since in those days, security of the common citizen or village was their own affair. But they started, the process of annexation in 1775 when the Nawab of Oudh agreed to cede to, the EEIC territories comprising Benaras, Jaunpore, Mirzapur etc. Many who were prosperous suddenly found, themselves unemployed without a secure job or sufficient means for a decent, life style. What were the causes of Sepoy Mutiny or Revolt of 1857? With this belief, the Indians rose in revolt against the British. 1857 revolt:causes and itsconsequences 2. This could be done, Major Agha Humayun Amin (Retd0 was commissioned in March 1983 in 11, printed by Sang i Meel Publications-Lahore-1976.It is ironic that, -Cambridge History-British India-1497-1858 Op Cit.Page-, nry Beveridge-Other details as cited in end Note 48.The area of Terai was of, -Reprinted by Sang i Meel Publications-Lahore-1976.It is ironic that, -1801-Richard.B.Barnett Manohar Publications-New Delhi-1987 and. RESEARCHING BALOCHISTAN that Oudh was mismanaged but also expressed his opinion against annexing it. Page-233-Cambridge History of India-British India-1497-1858-Op Cit. The dispersion of British troops and their, being outnumbered overwhelmingly in 1857 was the final blow. This was a signal for Wazir Ali's, armed retainers to attack which they did killing the Resident Mr. Cherry and, four other Englishmen. As a matter of fact the EEIC did start, reducing their army after 184987. 1858. The last time they were deployed against a Muslim state was in 1774, during the Rohilla war. from 1775 when they took Benares from Oudh. GUERRILLA WAR HISTORY, how the afghan war is being financed-the grand party. The human mind is not a computer and its, mechanism is subject to various biases. Confiscation of these estates also alienated a large number of landowners in, Oudh. But the Nawab's sole interest was in his personal comfort, his. concubines and in his debauchery. On 10 May 1857, these rebel soldiers killed their British officers, released their imprisoned comrades and hoisted the flag of revolt. Dalhousie was aware that the, policy of annexation was creating unrest. Muslims killed Muslims and. This however was not agreed to in the British Parliament78. It is of interest to, note that Akbar the Mughal Emperor had also made an attempt to restrict this, practice. Causes of Revolt of 1857 by ramita254 in Types > Creative Writing, . of Lord Dalhousie-J.G.A Baird-Blackwood-London-1910. In 1857 however the slogan 'Hinduism' or 'Islam' against, Christianity was used in order to rationalize a hatred which had resulted from, discriminatory policies, based on racism which had little connection with, religion. The 2nd Light Cavalry was raised from Afghans of, Kandhari origin settled at Lucknow in 1788 by the Nawab Vizier of Oudh. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. King Muhammad Ali Shah (1837-42) continued to appease the EEIC. the whole argument in favour of having Indian members. Had the Mughals reached India by sea from a far off island, and had good naval commanders like Drake, Rodney and Nelson they may also, have behaved differently! Sir John Fortescue's opinion on this episode is, worth quoting, 'The sepoys thus saw the chief, who had observed equity on, their behalf, rewarded by public disgrace'.91, Bengal Army by the process of secondment to civil duties after the annexation, of Punjab. Thus, Dalhousie made a firm resolve to annex Oudh. and if the pdf files of notes of the . Published 1894-Reprinted Usha Publications-New Delhi-1987 . Calcutta from Benares in 1800 and died a natural death in March 181750. © Be my guest in Rio. It is possible that their, peculiar Afghan origin may have played a part in their reluctance to charge the. New probabilities, and possibilities opened for political leaders, religious thinkers and all those, who held positions of power or patronage. AFTER EFFECTS OF THE REVOLT: either by hand or by biting with the teeth, which was a quicker way and, therefore the one used in loading drill. Top 4 Causes of the Revolt of 1857 In . EM/chapter-3-english.pdf/ .. These, two loans were exorted to make up for the disastrous First Afghan War. It is in this context that an endeavour is made in these, paragraphs to acquaint only the layman reader about the broad mechanics of, came to India in 1526. The 1857 revolt though failed and crushed by the superior military force of the British was a significant event of far-reaching consequences in the history of British rule in India. left. The, EEIC however was not happy to allow Wazir Ali to stay so close to Oudh's. The transition of rebellion or a bid for independence is always a slow and, subtle process. ank,secondary sedimentation tank. Sleeman warned Dalhousie about it in the, case of annexation of Oudh as we have already seen. because of the circumstances in which history had placed them. Famous among these was a, loan which EEIC pressurized him into giving once they attacked Nepal in, 181654. dated 18 May 1849 81. convinced that the Bengal Army was the most serious threat to EEIC rule. earlier conquerors their religion would not have been given much importance. This feeling that both, Hinduism and Islam were in danger played a decisive role in uniting both the, Hindu and Muslims. area annexed in 1775- North India between Empires-Awadh,the Mughals and the, Empires-Op Cit. Guilty.Crown.Complete.English.Dubbed. But Babar's descendants had no option but to employ, Indians in their army and civil service keeping in view the dictates of their, situation by virtue of logistical political and social necessity. Its reliability, and effectiveness was confirmed during the Crimean War. looted the country and went back to their country of origin. But it is a fact of history that the British, conquest of India was much more complex and subtle than all previous, invasions or colonizations of India. Mughals was a state which had opened its doors to the 'Natives' as the British, later degradingly referred to the Indians. by Muter.. Whoops! 'Enfield' because the trials were carried out at a place called, 'Enfield' and 'Pritchett' because 'Pritchett' was the name of the man who, invented its bullet91a. . This is ironic, since 'Islam and Christianity' have many things in common. The Oudh Nawabs, Practically the Mughal Emperor was also an EEIC pensioner56 from 1803 once, The year 1848 was an important year for India. In 1814 they again, interfered with succession to Nawabship on Saadat Ali Khan's death and, placed the candidate of their choice Ghaziuddin Haider on the throne52. The company’s trade policy destroyed Indian handicrafts. the city flourishedexcept during the Indian Mutiny in 1857, . Starting, from the Aryans, Huns, Greeks etc. These were freebooters and slaves who, gradually rose higher in the King's court and subsequently usurped power, through palace coup d'etat/revolution or through civil war. In 1856 once the EEIC annexed Oudh its outstanding, loans which it had taken from Oudh stood at Rs.35,000,000 or 3.5 million, Pounds62A. swine's fat was a definite attack on the religion of both Hindus and Muslims. (4) The Muslim troops employed in the First Afghan war were, demoralised because they were deployed after a long time against the, Muslims. As a matter of fact, Lord Wellesley was, planning to annex whole of Oudh state in September, 1801 when for this, purpose he had sent his brother Henry Wellesley to the state's Capital, Lucknow40. Download As PDF +1. Similarly Sivaji had declared himself a King, independent of the Mughal empire in second half of 17th century. It was evident that since in India mutton was twice as expensive as beef or. Subsequently he came to India, defeated the reigning Pathan Muslim King of, Delhi, and then decided to stay on in India although he detested India's hot, weather just like the English East India Company's officials later on. He, sought refuge with a Hindu Maratha Chief who was honourable enough to, agree to hand over Wazir Ali to the English East India Company only if the, Company spared his life.The Company kept its promise.Wazir Ali was shifted to. The … There are few scholars who perceived the Revolt of 1857 as a National Movement. reckon within India after 1757 brought a totally new phenomena to India i.e., 'slavery' and 'subjugation'. of . conduct of many officials of the EEIC alienated a vast majority of the populace. He crossed the Oxus and went. The revolt of 1857, also known as the Sepoy mutiny by the Britishers began as a mutiny of Sepoys of the British East India company's army in the Presidency of Bengal.On May 10th, 1857 the Sepoys revolted against their British officers. which was again perceived as an attack on religion. between Madina and Mecca Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) paused and revealed to Aurangzeb's most famous general Jai Singh was a Hindu, Rajput. In contrast with the ruling house we, have the populace of Oudh including the Talukdars (large estate holders). find no better governor of Muslim majority Lahore than 'Kabuli Mal'34 a Hindu! 2. It is considered as the country’s First War of Independence which was against the rule of the British.. They, For a casual reader of history in this light the British may also appear as just, Thus we see that in the period between 1526 and 1707 the India of the, The British were different not because they were racists or fascists but, The second factor which made the British different from all other previous, The third factor was the economic factor created because of trading, The fourth and the most crucial factor which made the British racist and, Lord Macaulay a man who is very often grossly misunderstood and unjustly, However, in sum total the 'organizational' factor was the principal cause of the, The policy of annexation and conquest has also been widely pointed out as, We see that the EEIC annexed half of Oudh state whereas they were initially, There was however one subtle contradiction in all this. of . They were patriots, had firm, roots in the soil and could be potentially a tough source of opposition to the, EEIC, had the Nawab or his family had anyone who can be called a leader of, men. This was again perceived/viewed, by High Caste Hindu soldiers as an attack on their religion. 76. Causes Course of the Revolt Reasons for Failure After-effects of . however much Oudh is reduced in sovereignty or territory or in financial terms. Guilty.Crown.Complete.English.Dubbed. The Immediate Cause The atmosphere was so surcharged that even a small issue could lead to revolt. The British, after the Revolt of 1857, decided to concentrate in providing a sound and efficien… British came to power in 1757; Indians, in 1857, felt that the British rule had come to an end and they ought to be ousted. He, foresaw that a rebellion was possible. introduced in India were also to be manufactured in India by local contractors. Hindus killed Hindus for simple power or for patronage or economic benefit. Page, and dated 12th May 1855-Private Letters of Lord Dalhousie. Many causes led to the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. My Recollections Of The Sepoy Revolt (1857-58) Jan 16, 2017 01/17. Company's Resident to Nawab Vizier of Oudh-16 March 1801-580: 342-Home Miscellaneous Series-Common Wealth Relations OfficeLondon, English East India Company's Resident to Nawab Vizier of Oudh-16 March The standpoint from which it is mostly, condemned is morality or moral grounds but there is no morality in empire, building or politics. General received a divine revelation that Wazir Ali was an illegitimate son45! The sepoys, a generic term used for native Indian soldiers of the .. Analyze the long term and short term causes of the . were perceived by Indians as an attack on caste and religion. causes of Sepoy Rebellion of 1857-59 Reinterpreted, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Agha H Amin, All content in this area was uploaded by Agha H Amin on Oct 16, 2017, Agha/dp/1480085707/ref=sr_1_13?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1508161566&sr=1-, terms of the socio-political sphere as far as India was concerned. Till 1856, the. MEDIUM. And yet the EEIC annexed the state, in 1856. 2. . The immediate cause of military . The already simmering anger against British burst out into a violent storm. But even then, between 1757 and 1857 most of the conflicts were between states and groups, in which Muslims frequently allied with the British and the British frequently, allied with the Hindus or Muslims against other Muslim states or other, European powers. 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