Z��ΌH���m�ТJsq83�4R6g���3��"��H� Many different irrigation methods … For proper nourishment of crops certain amount of water is required. 3 0 obj Surface irrigation methods . Class 8: Science: Crop Production and its management: modern method of irrigation Gravity irrigation methods are less expensive, but requires more skill and experience to achieve re-scannable efficiency. Select method of irrigation should fulfill following objectives • Adequate amount of water is stored in the root zone of plants • Light irrigation uniform application of 6cm Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation, functions as its name suggests. Abid Sarwar Department of Irrigation … <> There are two methods of irrigation, namely, traditional and modern. (ii) Drip Irrigation Method. Also the border, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods are discussed, but in less detail. 0 If rainfall is insufficient there will be deficiency in fulfillment of water requirement. x��Y�o9G��#{��^KU%ʅ��*���riڇ&w9�p���xwaͮ� m�e�3���x�g���~��yܒw�z��v����O�w�ݾ���[���So�y����~}y����f�n�n9�2E�_�-N��DkA�"��^�h�y�˨���!������@U�B���Ȕ�2�H�M��v�2�JN��4��P���TY���n}������g2����&��g�yz�ޯ�z�H�\��*2��)��h�#�)ՊXn�N �������T��4) endstream endobj 463 0 obj <>/Metadata 16 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 460 0 R/StructTreeRoot 25 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 464 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 465 0 obj <>stream Micro irrigation is a modern method of irrigation; by this method water is irrigated through drippers, sprinklers, foggers and by other emitters on surface or subsurface of the land. endstream endobj startxref One chapter is devoted to the choice of an appropriate irrigation method. Studies show that the economically advantageous of drip irrigation methods described above are in the highlands with high slopes. … �J�6� q�;@���Ƥ]�Sn]�Ө�Zg$c2Aze�T�r���?�C�(��]�I��2�����(�H�Ѫ+m�U?�{��c��Zn��~W�7��[�f{�M�/�\8 �u���{9�upu�f��fjm��K�p$M��/v3ˀ)A���B�o�+ʽя(���#��)gVJ�2K�6B� S@=��g��J������]k��C���ѡ4�O � … In this process of drip irrigation, the water drops fall on the root of every plant that is … Increase in crop yield: the production of almost all types of crops can be increased by providing the right amount of later at the right time, depending on its shape of growth. 4. This method can be the most water efficient method of irrigation, if managed properly, since evaporation and runoff are minimized. Modern irrigation technology in the form of hardware and software techniques has made significant strides and contributions to system operations these years (Renault, 1998). … 3. Advantages of Irrigation: 1. … This method also requires that the land to be irrigated should have a flatter slope, other wise the cost of land leveling and preparation at times be come very high. Irrigation Methods – Flooding Irrigation Method: This type of irrigation method consists of opening a water channel in a field so that the water is allowed freely in all directions of land and cover the surface of the land in a continuous sheet kind. Gravity irrigation method… <> methods, promotion of drip and sprinkler Micro- Irrigation( MI) techniques of irrigation and several other sustainable methods of modern day agriculture were also promoted. h�bbd``b`� $[A��` ,�@��D��9��.�e�U��@z�e �$n�0012Ƃ��d�Ŀ i�' ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the major advantages and disadvantages of irrigation. Irrigation tries to remove this deficiency caused due to inadequate rainfall. This supply of water to the crops at regular intervals is known as irrigation. Surface 2. Irrigation Methods The widely used methods of irrigation are surface, sprinkling, subirrigation, intrasoil, and mist irrigation… %PDF-1.5 endobj It artificially bestows the water by fulfilling the … Modern irrigation methods: (i) Sprinkler Irrigation Method. ���"\�/����V�� �:48���GAF�$��&]0�\I�Q6�_�]4&�bg�����F*$3(�b��������1z�S�mQ�XHk(ס��0�͑��5jְ���,�teWP�@{q�5|���7v�0=�>-����� �j� ��IЧT The modern methods of irrigation include: Sprinkler System; Drip System; Sprinkler Irrigation. Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop. <>/XObject<>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 2 0 obj h��WYo�6�+|LP")����5��-bw���%V�e� Crop irrigation is vital throughout the world in order to provide the world’s ever-growing populations with enough food. N���n�X�ͱ�.��8N֏�;�ۋ�^�ևxo�6�KXq�JZ��~H� stream For this purpose, more efforts had been done based on modification of irrigation methods … Achievements The impact of the … Moat. This method can vary in different regions. 2. Muhammad Salman Nasir Department of Structures and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan . The main advantage of this method is that it is cheap. NJ1, 06/2005) NJ6-1 NJ652.06 Irrigation System Design a) General A properly designed irrigation system addresses uniform irrigation … ���o?��� year and lack of groundwater, modern irrigation systems will reduce this issue of lack of water. Sprinkler irription method is an easy and simple method of irrigation … The second part of this chapter discusses the methods, structures and customs of spate irrigation… Thus, irrigation … In modern agriculture, drip irrigation … 478 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<7C3EC88509E2854A81EFE689BDDEB2E8><68D49E76C374BB4AB46042C305FEA803>]/Index[462 30]/Info 461 0 R/Length 81/Prev 45576/Root 463 0 R/Size 492/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream <>>> endobj Various irrigation methods have been developed over time to meet the irrigation needs of certain crops in specific areas. In this present situation, there is shortage of water everywhere. Overhead or Sprinkler Irrigation: In this method an attempt is made to simulate natural rainfall. The manual describes in some detail the basin and furrow irrigation methods. Sub-surface 3. It also works to stop the waste of water in irrigation… Modern irri gation is a synonym ous word to sprinkler a nd drip irrigation which is the irrigation m et hod usually used in new desert land with common sandy soil. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, New Delhi 1986. ����$���kOJr�%#�r��WòH����mE5����Ͱ\�\�7�,q]��_�BQva�;�/�� �_���W��,�%1i�P����*��)w�k�3����ʉ������ �d�� Report provides an overview of the current state of agriculture and irrigation sectors of Kyrgyzstan, the analysis of experience in application of different irrigation methods … 462 0 obj <> endobj This method is the most inefficient method of irrigation … Dhekli. The three main methods of irrigation … These include information … effective methods of crop irrigation, including drip irrigation. Agriculture is an important source of livelihood. Applica-tion of this management measure will reduce the waste of irrigation water, improve water use efficiency, and reduce the total pollutant discharge from an irrigation … h�b```�\�|���ea�8��Ъ��� ��9���\̃�, L �`��� W\ۗ� � d����hȴW7�,�Lw�>\b�48 �����Y$D��b`x���2�b �H%� explain the method of digging irrigation water channels through solid rock by hand, according to customs that cover both digging and maintenance of irrigation water conduits. Irrigation is the controlled application of water for agricultural purposes through manmade systems to supply water requirements that are not satisfied by the rainfall. United Nations, irrigation contributes to about 40% of the world’s food production on 20% of the world’s crop production land. Pressurized irrigation . Drip Irrigation. Major components of a micro irrigation … … This is a time consuming ... 2. Irrigation is the critical input in the agrarian method which superintends the amount of water drizzling towards the root shrubs with regular interregnum. Modern Irrigation Methods: (v) Sprinkler Irrigation Method: In present times, when water crisis is developing very fast everywhere, we should adopt improved techniques of irrigation to encourage suitable water management. new irrigation technology and modern methods of irrigation will play an important part in the achievement of improved irrigation efficiency. Chain pump. Here, a farmer pulls out water from wells or canals by himself or using cattle and carries to farming fields. 1. 491 0 obj <>stream `��s�H����o�i�p�dƥԝ�iU8i�܊"\�k��bbR �&�^��]L��FHeۄ���7�&�Pl��R��OiLR�����r�͒.�Ƃ�y�tn>ë6����B�*�S�Q-ñ��� ���!&,��D(��k� ��P�8ϡ�b�'bE�y�P,C� 1�E��f1A���uK�h7���^�*4�KtS���N0�`�9K�F�]N��C� Irrigation–Principles and Practices Introduction 205 Lecture 1: Irrigation Concepts and Terminology 207 Lecture 2: Irrigation Scheduling and Delivery Systems 209 Demonstration 1: Field-Scale Irrigation 217 Demonstration 2: Garden-Scale Irrigation … system and reducing irrigation water, human labor, electricity, and other resources. kʔ�wŔE-�t�|�2aa�`��R�1)�A��Ur�R�6MF77�Ŧ�� [=��eS5���|�6�z{v5����d��Z����������ur3�� x4�1�)V�����a���l5/���ݼx�0��������sʉτ)�z"�]���۳�v�\��[V5/%lai���2����_���j~��`ܬ���-��׋bN��6�b^�\-_�%�ɸ)ߘ��d�*I�]W��^'��14oό�C��]1� �-��|������8��R�������[Q��f���`$`���bK�B�2����r���Jx0�6��2� un���A�Cd���O&��� However, modern irrigation techniques are largely impacting the environment. %���� (iii) Pot Irrigation Method. 1 0 obj Oldest (4000 years back) and most common method. l�Ȕ��"�-`K�Rf����l���ED\��.�,FPY�|:N��3Ktg�Z'�������$�yb:�I7�>�7|?�'�3ITg ����fp�!��i6��w��LR�� A well designed and managed irrigation system reduces water loss to evaporation, deep percolation, and runoff and minimizes erosion from applied water. 1. Modern Methods of Irrigation on Maize Crop. IRRIGATION METHODS . Irrigation methods is the fifth in a series of training manuals on irrigation. %PDF-1.5 %���� endobj 4 0 obj [���t>��-Ȍ�=i_�G}����"Lֱj!-�+�|�BP谤��fe�v�Vh�:UD��2J�ِ,��Yy`7��x �o "^G��o����x-�[N0. Chapter 6 Irrigation System Design Part 652 Irrigation Guide (210-vi-NEH 652, IG Amend. �5����g/6ϝ��r y��#�W풣�8|�̵�^Є��;�؅w�*+ ��eR������ݼ�v. Also called the pulley system, it involves pulling up water from a well or other such source to irrigate the land. Traditional Irrigation Methods. Criteria for selection of irrigation method • Water supply source • Topography • Quantity of water to be applied • The crop • Method of cultivation . So, we should adopt those irrigation methods … %%EOF Google Scholar Murthy, Y. K: Advanced methods of irrigation and scope for application in India. Indeed, smart systems have proven their capability to regulate the irrigation of crops. 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